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Abstract - As results of the fast increase in construction activity, ancient construction materials reminiscent of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate is in short supply. Concrete is that the most significant part in building and is employed in massive quantities. It conjointly necessitates an enormous quantity of sand as a fine aggregate. Natural resources are being depleted by digging up sand from rivers, which poses a major threat to the ecosystem. Experts are therefore now focusing on developing a substitute to concrete and sand. In the manufacturing of concrete, however, a number of wastes and by-products from various industries are employed as substitutes or alternative materials.
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